This course introduces the fundamentals of organismal biology: the scientific method, principles of evolution including Darwins theory of natural selection, adaptations in organismal form and function, biodiversity, the interactions of organisms with their environment, and the practices of scientific communication. [Note 1: This course is designed for science majors. Students who intend to continue to study in Biology should note the need to complete BIOC 1001 as a prerequisite for BIOL 1501.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 1001 previously offered with a different title) Monday Wednesday and Friday 1:30 to 2:20PM Flemington 116.
This course introduces the structure, organization and functions of the cell, which is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms. It places particular emphasis on eukaryotic cells. Topics include: membranes and organelles, communication within and between cells, membrane transport, the cell cycle, meiosis and mitosis. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) Monday Wednesday and Friday 10:30 to 11:20AM Sir James Dunn Building 113.
This course introduces students to the structure and function of major groups of invertebrate and vertebrate animals on a comparative basis by observation of both preserved and living material. Topics include comparative anatomy and phylogeny, and the evolution and function of locomotory, digestive, excretory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems.(Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 2401 previously offered with a different title) Monday Wednesday and Friday 9:30 to 10:20AM Barclay 02.
This course introduces data analysis, the principles of experimental design and the formulating and testing of hypotheses. It describes graphical and statistical (t-test, chi-square test, ANOVA) analyses of laboratory and field collected data, and discusses their appropriate use in Biology. [Note 1: Data management and statistical analyses uses Excel and R.](Format: Lecture 3 Hours and Tutorial 1.5 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3701; any version of BIOL 2701 previously offered with a different title) Tuesday and Thursday 11:30 to 12:50PM Flemington 116.
This course examines evolution by natural selection as the driving force behind the diversity of life, examining genetic and evolutionary processes from the level of cells (gene transcription, recombination, mutation) to populations (selection, migration, genetic drift) to species (speciation, extinction, constraint). It examines modern theories of biological evolution, building from Mendelian genetics to genomics, and presents evolutionary biology as an experimental science, emphasizing the methods used to test evolutionary hypotheses in the wild and in the lab. It uses viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes of various levels of complexity as examples both in lectures and laboratories. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: 6 credits from BIOL 2601 and BIOL 2801) Monday Wednesday and Friday 10:30 to 11:20AM Flemington 116.
This course provides an overview of the major fossil plant and animal taxa in the context of the history of macroscopic and microscopic forms of life on Earth. It discusses morphology and anatomy of organisms in relation to accompanying changes in marine and terrestrial environments and when appropriate it emphasizes diagnostic features of the organisms used as time (biostratigraphy) and/or environmental (paleoecology) indicators. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENS 3991 Introduction to Palaeontology) Tuesday and Thursday 11:30 to 12:50PM Flemington 103.
This course covers the ecophysiology of microorganisms. The course surveys the key functional microbial groups which mediate major steps in the biogeochemical cycles, their ecological requirements and factors limiting their growth and activity. This leads to discussion of the roles of microorganisms in current issues in biology, industry and environmental science. (Format: Integrated Lecture and Laboratory 6 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 3111 previously offered with a different title) Tuesday and Thursday 4:00 to 5:20PM Flemington 024.
This course focuses on the physiological processes underpinning a monumental step in the evolution of the vertebrates, the transition from water to land. It examines the respiratory, circulatory, acid-base and osmoregulatory adaptations seen in fish to mammals and studies the integration of animal physiology with the environment by investigating metabolism and temperature. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) Monday Wednesday and Friday 9:30 to 10:20AM Flemington 103.

This course examines the structural organization of the human body, including the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. It investigates these systems in the context of human health and disease. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion BIOL 3991 Human Anatomy) Monday Wednesday and Friday 12:30 to 1:20AM Dunn 106.

This course explores how genetic technologies can be used to solve current problems in biology, ranging from ecology to medicine. It teaches skills in current genetic technologies including some or all of: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA extraction, gel electrophoresis, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunocytology, data mining, bioinformatics, conventional light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and related techniques. (Format: Integrated Lecture and Laboratory, 5 Hours) Tuesday and Thursday 10:00 to 11:20AM Flemington 024.
This course explores how the genetic program of cells interacts with the external and organismal environment to product the phenotype of the organism. It explores our current understanding of how interactions between genes, gene identification, gene-environment interactions, gene regulation, and epigenetics allow normal development. Human, animal, and plant diseases provide examples of how these processes work and the consequences of disruption. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) Monday Wednesday and Friday 10:30 to 11:20AM Crabtree M14.
A lecture and laboratory course in which the structure, function and diversity of vertebrate animals will be examined and compared. It will discuss successive modifications of structural and functional systems found in vertebrates, and speculate on the survival value of these systems and on their relationships to contemporary environments. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) Monday 12:30 to 4:20PM Flemington 213.
The field of conservation biology applies to the principles of ecology, biogeography, and population genetics to the mitigation of human impact and the maintenance of global biodiversity. The course will familiarize the student with the concepts and principles of conservation biology and will encourage active debate about threats to ecological integrity and the ways scientists attempt to cope with such threats. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) Tuesday and Thursday 8:30 to 9:50AM Flemington 103.
This course investigates the interactions between plants and human societies from the introduction of agriculture until the present. It includes the consideration of the evolution of vascular plants, especially those important to agriculture and forestry. It emphasizes the origins of agriculture on various continents and discusses economic botany and the present day commercial uses of plants. It also considers interrelations between plants and societies in dietary, cultural and religious connotations. Finally, the course considers world food shortages, either present or potential, and possible ways to alleviate these. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) Monday Wednesday and Friday 8:30 to 9:20AM Flemington 103.
This course investigates how to design studies with clear hypotheses, select appropriate statistical methods, and carry out the analyses, applying the techniques to real data sets. It reviews a variety of statistical techniques including advanced ANOVA and regression, techniques for categorical data, resampling methods, MANOVA, and other multivariate techniques. It also considers experimental design issues such as power analysis and pseudoreplication. [Note: Throughout the course, data analyses are conducted using R.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 2 Hours) Tuesday and Thursday 11:30 to 12:50PM Hart Hall 218.
A seminar course for Honours students in Biology which will critically evaluate a wide range of topics from the current literature in all branches of biological science. Students will be expected to deliver seminars on topics outside their thesis area and present preliminary thesis results. (Format: Lecture/Seminar 3 Hours) Monday Wednesday and Friday 11:30 to 12:20PM Flemington 103.